He was a strong believer in the nonviolent tactics of Gandhi, and he counseled Martin Luther King, Jr. Following a humanitarian trip to Haiti, Rustin died from cardiac arrest on August 24, 1987, at the age of seventy-five. Indeed, it was Rustin who was chiefly responsible for the organization of one of the most important nonviolent protests in American history, the 1963 March on Washington at which King delivered his electrifying “I Have a Dream” speech. Rustin was hired as FOR’s youth secretary and resumed traveling throughout the country promoting the cause of nonviolent struggle for social change. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bayard-rustin, "Bayard Rustin ." Bayard Rustin was a black Civil Rights activist, a close associate of Martin Luther King, and an advocate of gay and lesbian rights, and a Quaker. Joining Martin Luther King, Jr. first in the 1955 bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama, Rustin served for a half dozen years as a special assistant to King and played a major role in planning the establishment of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Following his release, in 1947, he proposed that a racially integrated group of sixteen FOR/CORE activists undertake a bus trip through the Upper South to test a recent Supreme Court decision on interstate travel. Education: Wilberforce University, 1930-31; Cheyney State Normal School (now Cheyney State College), 1931-33; City College of New York, 1933-35. During this period of active outreach, Rustin also became publicly vocal about his gay identity, challenging the civil rights establishment to adopt an agenda more inclusive of black gay men and lesbians and urging community leaders to respond to the ravages of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. He accumulated a colorful personal history, beginning with his youthful discovery that the woman he had assumed was his older sister was actually his mother. Bayard Rustin and Bill Sutherland were present as well. It’s made up of impressive full-time Regulars…, Our National Graduate Leadership Programme offers you a career opportunity like no other: developing leadership skills in a…, We know that diverse organisations understand their customers better and make better decisions, so we’re committed to creating…, Kent Police aims to be an employer of choice, developing a workforce which reflects the diversity of our…, The UK engineering industry accounts for almost a quarter of the turnover of all UK businesses. In the late 1950s, Rustin helped draft King’speeches and articles, and he coordinated his public appearances. Down the Line: The Collected Writings of Bayard Rustin. His own views are best expressed in his books Which Way Out? Although he was best known for his influence on the course of the black protest agenda, Rustin’s political engagements extended to organized labor and world affairs. But by 1963 Rustin had grown disillusioned with nonviolent direct action as a means of effecting change on behalf of black people. When Rustin began to run into trouble with laws against homosexual activity, FOR chairman Muste warned him that any further such violations would cause his dismissal from the organization. Woodward, C. Vann, ed. Bayard Rustin (1912-1987) was a leading strategist of the Civil Rights Movement. New York Herald Tribune, July 28, 1964; August 9, 1964. True to its grassroots origins, the SCLC was organized at the regional level and allotted membership status only to groups, not individuals. ." He thought is mother was actually his sister. . Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954–63, The Oxford Companion to American Military History, Martin Luther King, Jr. 1929-1968 We are delivering a more equal and fairer world of work. Fairclough, Adam, To Redeem the Soul of America: The Southern Christian Leadership Conference and Martin Luther King, Jr., University of Georgia Press, 1987. As a person born on this date, Bayard Rustin is listed in our database as the 45th most popular celebrity for the day (March 17) and the 21st most popular for the year (1912). Americans for its affirmation of equality between the races, and Rustin was only one of many black intellectuals to embrace its philosophy for a period of time. Our…, We are a thriving, multi-campus coastal university delivering innovative career-focused courses at undergraduate and postgraduate degree level and…, The University of Lincoln’s award-winning city centre campus provides a modern student-centred environment. SCLC Formed Rustin organized the 1963 March on Washington and it was Rustin’s understanding and teaching of non-violence and unwavering commitment to non-discrimination that became the framework through which Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. lead. Rustin’s sexuality, or at least his embarrassingly public criminal charge, was criticized by some fellow pacifists and civil-rights leaders. Rustin did not withdraw from the boycott; he merely shifted his work behind the scenes. A conscientious objector to military service, Rustin was imprisoned for resisting the draft in 1943 and served nearly two and a half years in the Ashland Correction Institute and Lewisburg Penitentiary. When the bus boycott developed in Montgomery, Alabama, Rustin appeared on the scene to offer support, advice, and information on nonviolence. Down the Line: The Collected Writings of Bayard Rustin, Quadrangle Books, 1971. Civil rights advocate Bayard Rustin was arrested in California for having consensual same-sex relations and charged with vagrancy. Encyclopedia.com. (Two years later North Carolina abolished chain gangs.) When the party’s Central Committee insisted that Rustin stop his anti-segregation work, he resigned from the party. Award, and Man of the Year Award from the Pittsburgh chapter of the NAACP. "On the Economic Condition of Blacks." Rustin, Bayard. Bayard Rustin was a civil rights leader, pacifist, political organizer, and controversial public figure. Encyclopedia.com. Early in the 1950s Rustin became active in the movement of African nationalists seeking independence from European colonialism and also headed the pacifist War Resisters League. Later, on Rustin’s advice, King banished firearms from his household, marking a turn in the moral temper of the civil rights movement. To finance a return trip to Africa, Rustin commenced a speaking tour of the United States. this is a great story and i think its intresting, Fun fact: he was raised by his grandparents, who he was led to believe were his parents. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. ." He was the chief organizer of the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which was headed by A. Philip Randolph, the leading African-American labour-union president and socialist. Sponsored by CORE, this “Journey of Reconciliation” With these influences in his early life, Rustin campaigned against racially discriminatory Jim Crow laws in his youth… 2003. . By the mid-1950s a grass-roots civil rights movement had begun to emerge in the South. Rustin was raised in Pennsylvania by his grandparents. https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/rustin-bayard-1910-1987, Martin, Jonathan "Rustin, Bayard 1910–1987 I would celebrate Bayard Rustin each and every day but on the twenty fourth day of Black History Month 2016 I want to especially celebrate and remember the gay, Black, male and Quaker activist who introduced Dr. MLK, Jr. and the civil rights movement to Ghandi and non-violence. Retrieved December 21, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rustin-bayard. Martin Luther King Jr., the leader of the boycott, accepted his help. Originally conceived as a militant demonstration against employment discrimination, the march assumed greater breadth with the participation of major civil rights leaders. See more ideas about African american history, Black history, Bayard. Rustin is sometimes credited with persuading Randolph to accept nonviolence as a strategy. Car.) Encyclopedia.com. At a Glance… In April of 1969, when James Forman presented the Black Manifesto, a public call for reparations to the Afric…, James Luther Bevel (born 1936) was a civil rights activist of the 1960s who aligned himself with Martin Luther King, Jr. Du Bois and James Weldon Johnson were frequent guests in the Rustin home. However, Rustin remained an outsider in black civil-rights circles because, unlike most of his peers, he was gay. In 1963, as Randolph renewed his plans for a massive March on Washington, he proposed Rustin as the coordinator for the national event. The bus boycott ended successfully in December of 1956 with the arrival in Montgomery of desegregation orders from the Supreme Court. Story at a glance. I couldn’t know that 14 years later, Bayard and I would become life partners, sharing much happiness rooted in the values of our early religious training. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. . From this vantage point Rustin surveyed the violent upheavals and factionalism that soon characterized the movement for racial equality. Education: Wilberforce University, 1930-31; Cheyney State Normal School (now Cheyney State College), 1931-33; City College of New York, 1933-35. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Tall, thin, usually bushy-haired, and with an acquired West Indian accent, Rustin was noticed wherever he appeared. ." Working with the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), Rustin orchestrated the Journey of Reconciliation, which involved sixteen CORE members traveling by bus between southern cities in order to test a recent Supreme Court ruling that banned racial discrimination in interstate travel. The papers, authored by Rustin and Levison, situated the events and provided a political and structural framework for the organization, emphasizing the need for a federation of southern civil rights leaders that would coordinate mass direct action, voter education, and outreach against racial oppression. . Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Rustin became the head of the AFL–CIO’s A. Philip Randolph Institute, which promoted the integration of formerly all-white unions and promoted the unionization of African Americans. Rustin began the most productive period of his career upon his release from prison in March 1947. (December 21, 2020). After a youth grounded in his grandmother’s Quaker teachings, Rustin began college in 1932 at Wilberforce University, but he transferred to Cheney State Teachers’ College two years later. He resigned from FOR, served a thirty-day jail sentence, and returned to New York. The Oxford Companion to American Military History. On the recommendation of A. Philip Randolph, a leader in both the trade union and civil rights movements, Rustin went to Montgomery in 1956 to advise King during the bus boycott. The only integrated social clubs in New York were operated by Communist organizers who hoped to enlist the support of blacks, and during this period Rustin became affiliated with the Communist party. Homosexuality was criminalized in parts of the United States until 2003. Rustin resigned from SCLC; he continued, however, to serve as a leading political adviser to King, and he remained influential in the SCLC’s affairs until King’s death in 1968. 2003. By the time of Rustin’s death in 1987 the goals and tactics of his political activity had undergone many changes, but his fundamental vision remained that of equal rights for all citizens in a fully democratic society. 21 Dec. 2020 . Outraged by actions that he believed jeopardized FOR’s mission, Muste asked Rustin to leave the organization. Here he parted with King, who still believed in the power of mass demonstrations. His skills as an organizer, planner, and leader were highly valued by prominent leaders in the Civil Rights Movement; yet, Rustin was relegated to the background during the Movement. Despite his international success, aspects of Rustin’s personal life threatened to cripple his effectiveness in the United States by isolating him from his political colleagues. As late as 1980 he said, "You cannot give respectability to one terrorist group [meaning the Palestine Liberation Organization] without other groups benefiting from that respectability." Still, some leaders questioned whether Rustin, a known gay man, was an appropriate choice as the march’s director. In 1947 he worked closely with Randolph again in a movement opposing universal military training and a segregated military, and he once again believed Randolph wrong in abandoning his strategies when met with a presidential executive order intended to correct the injustice. Rustin was born in West Chester, Pennsylvania and was brought up by his grandmother, who had been raised as a Quaker. Before becoming a firefighter my life…, The Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) prosecutes criminal cases that have been investigated by the police and other investigative…, In a very short time, structures for BME members were inserted into the union’s rule book, they elected…, All of our unique officers, staff and volunteers share one common goal – an overwhelming desire to improve…, Adoption Is now the right time for you to adopt with Southwark? We innovate with outstanding artists and…, Community is a union for everyone. Born March 17,1910, in West Chester, PA; died of a heart attack, August 24, 1987, in New York City. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Bayard Rustin and the Civil Rights Movement. He was instrumental in the United States' civil rights movement of the 1950s and '60s, and organized the 1964 "March on Washington." Rustin's grandmother, Julia, was a Quaker, though she attended her husband's A.M.E. Church. Bayard Rustin (1910 – 1987) Politician Bayard Rustin was born March 17, 1910 in Chester, Pennsylvania and was raised by his grandfather, a caterer, and his grandmother, a Quaker who founded the black day nursery in Chester and was head of the local NAACP chapter. The Bayard Rustin Fund: A Travel Support Fund for People of Color This fund is intended to be used to support People of Color's travel to FGC sponsored meetings and other activities, including the Summer Gathering. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Bayard Rustin was a famous American civil rights activist, who was born on March 17, 1912. But with this participation came a number of political conflicts that Rustin and Randolph compelled to deal with. Conservative members, however, eventually sought his ouster, and from 1960 until 1963 Rustin had little contact with King. NAACP leaders such as W.E.B. George, Carol "Rustin, Bayard Rustin became an honorary chairperson of the Socialist Party of America in 1972, before it changed its name to Social Democrats, USA (SDUSA); Rustin acted as national chairman of SDUSA during the 1970s. He worried that his actions would detract from FOR’s cause, and his conduct earned a swift reprimand from Muste. Votin…, Nonviolence is a principle that rejects violence as un-conscionable and may reject all forms of coercion. He never softened his principles. Leaders of Jewish organizations joined in mourning the passing of Bayard Rustin, chairman of the A. Philip Randolph Institute and one of the foremost civil rights and leaders in this country. When President Franklin D. Roosevelt capitulated to Randolph's threat to hold the march—though Rustin believed that Randolph should not have canceled the march—Randolph arranged for Rustin to meet with A. J. Muste, the head of the radical pacifist Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR). He had come to believe that it was time to move on to the political arena. In January 1957, Rustin and other In Friendship cofounders Ella Baker and Stanley Levison presented King with a series of working papers that served as the basis for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Termed the Journey of Reconciliation, the trip was essentially peaceful, although participants encountered violence outside Chapel Hill, North Carolina, where Rustin and three others were charged with violating the segregation laws.  He counseled Martin Luther King, Jr. on the techniques of nonviolent resistance. At that time strict segregation was still the rule in places of public entertainment. Elegant in diction and dress, with the poise and manners of an aristocrat, Rustin was a connoisseur of African art and European antiques. The Reminiscences of Bayard Rustin. Levine, Daniel. Civil rights leader Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. After 1966 Rustin used his presidency of the A. Philip Randolph Institute to promote his Democratic-Socialist politics, particularly his belief that African American progress depends on a political coalition of African Americans and progressive whites united in their support of "A Freedom Budget for All Americans." In the Greenwich Village social circles in which Rustin traveled, it was acknowledged and accepted that he was homosexual; outside this zone of tolerance Rustin’s personal life was considered a potential liability to the political organizations for which he worked. ." Unable to participate directly in the boycott, Rustin did so by proxy from New York. Bayard Rustin, a gay civil rights leader, was kept in the shadows by the Civil Rights movement establishment, but organized the March on Washington. I just happened to be a participant in the March on Washington in August of 1963 & More. Now possessed of a reputation as an activist in the politics of race, Rustin was able to offer advice to the members of the FOR cell who became the nucleus for a new nonviolent action organization, the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Bayard Construction is a business that has been built on a solid foundation of success through customer satisfaction. D’emilio, John. However, Rustin’s presence eventually drew attention, and he was extracted from Montgomery after a local newspaper alleged that he was wanted for inciting a riot. Food System Resources. Rustin intentionally remained in the background, advising colleagues that his presence in Montgomery should remain clandestine. Click here to learn more about registration and access the new MCPS online registration tool for students entering pre-K through 5th grade. James Luther Bevel was born…, In 1957 a group of young southern ministers formed an organization in Atlanta, Georgia , called the Southern Negro Leaders Conference on Transportati…, Abernathy, Ralph David 1926-1990 Retrieved December 21, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rustin-bayard-0. Rustin was a gay man who had been arrested for a homosexual act in 1953. Again, Rustin’s diplomatic ability to smooth over conflicts among march leaders was key. . Civil rights leader Rustin, Bayard. He was Martin Luther King Jr’s chief organizer, pioneer of the movement’s nonviolent resistance, and the man behind the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, during which Dr. King delivered his momentous and influential “I have a Dream” speech. Encyclopedia.com. At Rustin’s urging, John Lewis of the SNCC modified his speech to eliminate what Wilkins perceived as inflammatory comments. After the end of World War II Rustin became chairman of the Free India Committee and later went to India to study the Gandhi movement's nonviolent civil disobedience. Organizer, Young Communist League, 1936-41 (resigned from party, 1941); Fellowship of Reconciliation, Chicago, IL, youth secretary, 1941, race relations director, 1942-53; Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), field secretary and co-founder, 1942; jailed as a conscienti… Time on Two Crosses: The Collected Writings of Bayard Rustin. Merseyside Police – Are you ready for a new challenge. In 1948 he directed A. Philip Randolph's Committee Against Discrimination in the Armed Forces, which helped to persuade President Harry S. Truman to issue an executive order banning racial segregation in the military. Julia Rustin, an active member of the NAACP, and a Quaker, imparted the values … In 1947 as a member of the Fellowship of Reconciliation, Rustin planned the "Journey of Reconciliation", which would be used as a model for the Freedom Rides of the 1960's. After the passage of the civil-rights legislation of 1964–65, Rustin focused attention on the economic problems of working-class and unemployed African Americans, suggesting that the civil-rights movement had left its period of “protest” and had entered an era of “politics”, in which the Black community had to ally with the labour movement. Story at a glance. King advised the march organizers that the SCLC’s primary concern was civil rights, not unemployment. ." The new organization, he felt, must be led by southern blacks, just as the boycott had been—which left Rustin himself in an awkward situation, as he was a northern black, an outsider even in the organization he helped create. Rustin’s grandmother was a Quaker who instilled in Rustin a sense of commitment to social justice. (December 21, 2020). The potential for scandal loomed once again in the summer of 1960, when the powerful black congressman Adam Clayton Powell threatened to expose Rustin’s personal and political past. In the pacifist Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR), Rustin practiced nonviolence. Troubles I’ve Seen, a Biography. However, Rustin remained in close touch with the man most responsible for the success or failure of the SCLC, Martin Luther King, Jr. Rustin encouraged the cult of personality growing around King and helped the emerging leader by briefing him for meetings, drafting speeches and press releases—in short, by giving the younger man the benefit of his experience as a political tactician and of his connections with wealthy civil rights supporters. Rustin was born in West Chester, Pennsylvania. 21 Dec. 2020 . 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Following his death, the Bayard Rustin High School for the Humanities in New York City was named in his honor. Bayard Rustin (March 17, 1912 – August 24, 1987) was an American civil rights activist, important largely behind the scenes in the civil rights movement of the 1960s and earlier. Political strategist, civil rights activist. In his nearly half a century struggle for peace, civil rights, and economic justice, Rustin was arrested more than 20 times. The 1960's Arguably the high point of Bayard Rustin's political career was the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom which took place on August 28, 1963, the place of Dr. Martin Luther King's stirring "I Have a Dream" speech. ." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. His grandmother, an activist and Quaker, played a significant role in his life. . This work required Rustin to engage in multiple negotiations not only with the march organizers, but also with federal and municipal agencies. Rustin became a leading strategist of the civil rights movement from 1955 to 1968. Bayard Rustin. After the mid-1960s, Rustin's calls for blacks to work within the political system and his close ties with Jewish groups and labor unions made him the target of attacks by younger radicals, while his support for American investment and educational efforts in South Africa during the 1970s and 1980s outraged opponents of the Apartheid regime. New York: Free Press. The party was especially appealing to black. Muste’s Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR), an organization guided by the Gandhian principles of nonviolent protest that would later be deployed by civil rights leaders. Roy Wilkins of the NAACP and Whitney Young of the National Urban League sought to de-emphasize civil disobedience and militancy in fear that such action would threaten President Kennedy’proposed civil rights legislation. Randolph shared their concern, and, together with other northern civil rights leaders, prevailed upon Rustin to leave Montgomery. However, in 1953, following one of his speaking engagements in Pasadena, Rustin was charged with lewd conduct for engaging in gay sex. In December of 1955, a black woman named Rosa Parks refused to move to the back of the bus in segregated Montgomery, Alabama, sparking a bus boycott that would serve as a model for a decade of civil rights protests. He attended college at West Chester State College, then moved to Harlem during the 1930s, where he cultivated a bohemian lifestyle, attending classes at City College, singing with jazz groups and at night clubs, and gaining a reputation as a chef. John Whiteclay Chambers II "Rustin, Bayard Rustin again put the interests of the movement before his own, voluntarily stepping down from the SCLC. New York: Columbia University Press. Click here for a link to the Montgomery County Food Council page. As a compromise, Randolph was named director, and, in a show of unqualified support, he named Rustin his deputy. 2006. Encyclopedia of Race and Racism. Retrieved December 21, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/rustin-bayard-1910-1987. University of Bristol, School of Education, Barbican / Guildhall School of Music & Drama, Royal Academy of Engineering Engineering Engagement Programme. Rustin also influenced young activists, such as Tom Kahn and Stokely Carmichael, in organizations like the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Randolph offered Rustin temporary work with his March on Washington Movement, a project targeting racial discrimination in defense industries, and he further helped Rustin by arranging a meeting with A. J. Muste, the radical reformer who headed an international pacifist organization called the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR). Bayard Rustin: The Troubles I've Seen. If you want to learn more, check out Brother Outsider: the Life of Bayard Rustin on PBS. Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. Martin, Jonathan "Rustin, Bayard 1910–1987 FOR’s program encompassed a broad social agenda of which pacifism was but one component. Encyclopedia.com. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Rustin became Muste’s chief acolyte, but his rise to leadership left him politically vulnerable, and in 1943 he was sentenced to three years in prison for refusing to register for selective service. That event was the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, and it was the first time I’d heard the name Bayard Rustin, who was instrumental in organizing this historic event. Martin, Jonathan "Rustin, Bayard 1910–1987 Bayard Rustin was the chief architect of the 1963 March on Washington and a beloved member of the IRC Board of Directors. 21 Dec. 2020 . . He usually acted as an influential adviser to civil-rights leaders. This was designed to cure the basic economic ills of the nation through federal programs for full employment, the abolition of slums, and the reconstruction of the educational system. This can only be achieved through a partnership approach and by building partnerships with our clients we provide the effective services that meet their needs. . "Bayard Rustin After graduating from West Chester High School as an honor student and three-letter star athlete, he drifted about the United States doing odd jobs and periodically studying history and literature at Cheney State Teachers College and Wilberforce University. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rustin-bayard-0, John Whiteclay Chambers II "Rustin, Bayard _____, Ed Edwin, and Walter Neagle. He recognized Martin Luther King, Jr.’s leadership, and helped to organize the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to strengthen King’s leadership; Rustin promoted the philosophy of nonviolence and the practices of nonviolent resistance, which he had observed while working with Gandhi’s movement in India. Based on the picturesque Brayford…, Today’s modern RAF is the UK’s aerial, peacekeeping and fighting force. Bayard Rustin and the Civil Rights Movement. In 1942 FOR established a Department of Race Relations, with Rustin and another young black activist, James Farmer, serving as directors. Demonstrations for civil rights, socialism, pacifism and non-violence, and gay rights 's board Bayard... March 17 fall under the Zodiac sign of Pisces, the youngest of nine children Haiti, Rustin s. Want to learn more about registration and access the New MCPS online registration tool for students entering pre-K 5th! 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Washington in August of 1963 a humanitarian trip to Africa, where he spoke against. – are you ready for a New challenge text into your bibliography for working toward equality!, John Lewis of the NAACP North Carolina abolished chain gangs. cultural and political circles of New York enroll! A firsthand look, but also with federal and municipal agencies life and Communist connections vulnerable..., Community is a business that has been built on a humanitarian mission in Haiti when he bayard rustin at a glance New... A young man was controversial program encompassed a broad social agenda of Which pacifism was but one component and. Who died in 1987 with nonviolent direct action as a representative of the boycott ’ s focused. ] [ 2 ] he counseled martin Luther King Jr., leader of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters California. On November 20, 2013, president Barack Obama posthumously awarded Rustin the Presidential Medal of.! 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